Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category

One Health: Dog walking in an era of overweight and obesity: Strategies for both ends of the leash

Wednesday, May 22nd, 2013

finalAHF_PawLogoRebecca A. Johnson, University of Missouri, USA (Co-Author of “Walk A Hound, Lose A Pound)

ABSTRACT for AVMA Convention, 2013, Human-Animal Bond Track

A large share of the industrialized world is recognizing and struggling to address an epidemic of overweight and obesity which has also extended itself to companion animals. Creative strategies are needed that transcend species and help to facilitate physical activity. The nature of human-animal interaction (HAI) as a key facilitator of physical activity for both ends of the leash will be explored. In particular, what components of HAI and the human animal bond are most likely to facilitate cross-species physical activity, what role dog walking can play when it is incorporated into treatment plans for people and companion animals, and what arethe theoretical and empirical bases for advocating dog walking?

The potential for dog walking as a communities-wide intervention and its applicability across cultures will be discussed. Attention will be paid to clinical implications around dog walking and its potential for advancing One Health practice in a variety of disciplines.  This work grew out of my research on relocation of older adults in which I found that physical limitations were common reasons for them to relocate to a nursing home. In our first study we achieved significant weight loss among participants. Subsequent studies showed that older adults’ normal walking speed increased
significantly after dog-walking and that dog walking was associated with increased physical activity outside of the dog walking. The findings show that HAI can have important implications for health and well-being.

Rebuilt CSU equine center thriving after fire

Monday, April 29th, 2013

CS Equine CenterClinicians at Colorado State University’s Equine Reproduction Laboratory, which reopened in March after it was destroyed in a 2011 fire, wasted no time in getting back to work even as construction continued around them. “Literally the day we moved into the facility, we were examining mares,” said veterinarian and facility director Jerry Black. The new space, bigger and filled with state-of-the-art equipment, is central to the effort to develop an Equine Institute at the school. The Coloradoan (Fort Collins, Colo.) (tiered subscription model)

It burned into the ground only to be reborn from the ashes — a home to new life.

After it was demolished by an early morning fire in July 2011, Colorado State University’s Equine Reproduction Laboratory was rebuilt in its former place at the Foothills Campus in west Fort Collins. Just days after final inspections, the now-larger and updated facility opened to eagerly awaiting employees and clients in early March.

“Literally the day we moved into the facility, we were examining mares,” said Jerry Black, appointed the new lab director at the year’s start. Black, a veterinarian and associate professor in the Department of Animal Sciences, also kept his title as director of CSU’s undergraduate equine sciences program.

As construction got under way, CSU continued providing services in temporary Equine Reproduction Laboratory buildings scattered among barns and other facilities unharmed by the fire. And while work never stopped, Black and others are excited for what came next.

“With the tragedy came an opportunity,” he said Wednesday, sitting in a new office that still smelled of fresh paint. The fire, which burned an estimated $12 million in real estate, research equipment and genetic material stored for clients, is counted among the most costly and damaging disasters in CSU history.

The rebuilt facility is “considerably” larger than its predecessor at 12,000 square feet and brings together several long-separated services. Traffic flow is much improved, Black said, with mare and stallion services kept apart for the safety of both horses and humans.

Still in the works is an equine molecular reproduction lab — what Black said will be “one of the only” labs of its type in the country. There users will manipulate high-tech equipment to identify in mere hours potentially harmful bacterial organisms growing in a mare’s uterus; compare this to common practice of growing cultures over two to three weeks.

There’s also more teaching space and places for professors and visiting professionals to conduct research, said Black, opening doors to rooms in which still-covered microscopes and boxed monitors lay unopened on countertops and tables. Down the hall, interns, professors and resident veterinarians were gathered around a microscope and screen that displayed fluid flushed from a mare next door.

Caring folks at Angel Fund saved Skipper’s life

Monday, April 29th, 2013

Skipper PhotoIn June, 2011, Kathy Mullins’ dog Skipper had a problem.  “We’d take him out in the yard and we’d notice immediately that he couldn’t urinate. He was trying very hard and he was straining and he just couldn’t. And that went on a day or so. Eventually little drops of blood started coming out.

“And you can imagine, I started panicking.” Mullins took her dog, a five-year-old Pomeranian-Toy Poodle mix, to Irvine Boulevard Animal Hospital in Irvine where Dr. David Driscoll examined him.  “I’m thinking he has some kind of blockage,” the veterinarian told Mullins, “probably some stones. But I won’t know for sure until we do x-rays. I might be able to do this without surgery. But I can’t guarantee that. It could be that he has to have surgery.’”

Mullins said: “So I’m thinking ‘Oh, Lord!’  First of all, you don’t want your pet to suffer and you don’t want to lose your pet but you’re also certainly thinking about the financial end of it. At the time, I didn’t have a job.  I was working at some temporary jobs.  That was the only thing I was able to get at the time. And I was between temporary jobs.  It was a really difficult time.

“So Dr. Driscoll did the x-ray and I was able to scrounge up a few dollars for that so that he could determine exactly what was going on.” The x-ray showed that Skipper had bladder stones – “quite a few of them.” Mullins recalled, and the doctor said that surgery would be needed to save Skipper’s life.

“Dr. Driscoll was able do a procedure to alleviate the problem that seemed to buy us a little time. It was getting to the point where the bladder could have ruptured.  And he told me about Angel Fund. It took us a day or two to arrange for them to help us.

“The people at Angel Fund were very nice. And we were able to get Skipper back in there and schedule the surgery.  I couldn’t sleep and I was crying the whole time and my three daughters were very upset.

“But everyone was very kind. We still talk about it to this day. How Angel Fund and the doctor and the other people at the hospital – people cared.  And that was so touching for our family, that they cared about our pet and they cared about us. And so we still get to enjoy our Skipper. They saved our dog.”

Angel Fund contributed $500 to help pay for Skipper’s surgery and Irvine Boulevard Hospital slashed its bill by $700.

Kathy and David Mullins, who lived in Irvine when Skipper was sick, have since moved with their three daughters to Ashland, Ky. “We feel very blessed. It was such a hard time then and there were some caring people who helped us and saved our dog and we are very grateful.”

UC Davis debuts veterinary research center

Tuesday, March 19th, 2013

The University of California, Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine has opened its new $58.5 million, 76,000-square-foot research facility, designed to bring researchers into an open, collaborative space and facilitate “teams of scientists working to solve complex problems,” said veterinary school dean and veterinarian Michael Lairmore. The facility houses pet health researchers, scientists specializing in ecosystem health, the 100K Pathogen Genome Project for food safety and the One Health Center of Expertise. The Sacramento Bee (Calif.) (free registration)

Officially, the ceremony at UC Davis on Friday was about a building. A four-story structure with a sandstone and gray-colored exterior – with water-chilled beams for energy conservation and recycled construction materialsfor forest sustainability.

But to Michael Lairmore, dean of the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, the opening of a $58.5 million building – dubbed “Research Facility 3B” – was “a celebration of discovery.”

His effusiveness Friday was due to the fact the new 76,000-square-foot facility will serve as the hub for one of America’s top veterinary schools.

UC Davis’ $60 million in annual veterinary research ranges from studies on weight management for the family cat to the ecological health of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to the 100,000 infectious microorganisms that can speed diagnosis of food-borne illnesses.

“What this does is to put people together in a modern, open laboratory structure,” Lairmore said of the center, the cornerstone of a $203 million construction program for the veterinary school. “And basically what that allows is to have teams of scientists working to solve complex problems.”

Besides a veterinary hospital that treats 40,000 animals a year, from domestic pets to mountain lions, the veterinary school once had as many as 20 distantly scattered buildings for teaching and research. Now it will have eight – with the new building as its core research location.

UC Davis Chancellor Linda Katehi said Friday that the new building brings together diverse research and clinical studies “that make a difference for the lives of people, for the lives of pets, for health and for treating disease in animals and humans.”

So on the new facility’s second floor, Dr. Andrea Fascetti and Dr. Jennifer Larsen, specialists in animal nutrition, offered tips on preventing feline and canine obesity with nurturing and healthy pet treats.

Nearby, postdoctoral researcher Shawn Acuna, a specialist in anatomy, physiology and cell biology, led demonstrations on nurturing the health of tiny river smelt – “the baseline fish” for “the health of the Delta.”

One floor above, Rob Atwill, a doctor of veterinary medicine and director of the Western Institute for Food Safety and Security, which will use the new building, explained his detective work ensuring the healthiness of agricultural products.

“We’re the group called in to track down the water for E. coli (contamination), to trap the feral pigs, to test the lettuce – the whole food safety CSI type of work.”

The UC Davis veterinary medicine program also conducts research on the health and welfare of herds in California’s $2.8 billion annual beef industry and $2.5 billion poultry industry while undertaking training programs for U.S. Food and Drug Administration inspectors.

On Friday, Darren Minier, project coordinator for the school’s International Institute for Human-Animal Networks, located in the facility, touted disease transmission studies by UC Davis graduate students tracking interaction between cattle and giraffes, gazelles and zebras in Africa.

“We just got back from India, looking at human-monkey conflict,” he said of another endeavor. “In some parts of northern India, there are just as many monkeys as people – moving from building to building, crop to crop, temple to temple.”

The new building is also home to UC Davis’ “100,000 Pathogen Genome Project” – which is compiling a database of infectious microorganisms in food- or water-borne viruses.

It also includes the One Health Center of Expertise, an institute melding environmental, social science, agricultural and engineering research for a stated mission of responding “to global health problems arising at the human-water-animal food interface.”

In opening ceremonies, Katehi said the new multidisciplinary research center “allows us to be creative and forward-thinking in ways that have not happened before.”

Read more here:

Veterinary medicine’s central role in public health

Friday, March 8th, 2013

Veterinarians are known by most as compassionate practitioners of animal medicine, an important role, but veterinarian Joan Hendricks explains that they are also uniquely poised for crucial roles in public health. Veterinarians are the only medical professionals comprehensively trained in comparative medicine and human-animal interactions, she writes, and they have a deep background in infectious disease. This contributes to treatments for humans, solutions to global hunger, improved food safety and production, and surveillance and prevention of potentially devastating infectious diseases  The Huffington Post/The Blog

Most people think that veterinarians are doctors who treat cats and dogs, provide compassionate, expert care but also charge amply for their services.  This narrow view means that a vet’s work is underestimated and, often, not respected.  In reality their role is substantially broader and yet their leadership potential is generally overlooked.

While many vets are caregivers for our domestic animals — and it’s very important work — a larger mission is to focus on minimizing the transmission of infectious disease and help tackle world hunger issues.

Vets are trained as rigorously as doctors of human medicine; four years of college, four of vet school and additional internships and residencies if they become specialists.  Uniquely trained in comparative biology, veterinarians are the only members of the clinical profession — including physicians — who see many different species, and understand medicine fundamentally such that all species benefit.

Veterinarians approach medicine with a global perspective and support public health, enormously impacting people’s well-being. They also play an integral role in food safety and food production.  Since people share many of the same diseases and biology as animals, veterinarians have a large role in preventing and controlling diseases, as well as providing research that helps treat diseases like cancer, neurological disorders and immune diseases.
In fact, veterinary medicine is the profession that stands between all of humanity and plague and famine.


For instance, many of the infectious diseases (e.g. avian flu, swine flu, AIDS, West Nile Virus, Lyme disease) that spread in humans come from animals originally. The CDC estimates that number to be 75 percent. Preventing new diseases in humans, as well as potential plagues, is crucial, and well-trained animal care professionals play a vital role. In Pennsylvania, veterinarians developed surveillance technology that provides the ability to stem an outbreak of avian influenza.  Within one month, a potentially devastating outbreak was stopped at a cost of $400,000, while a similar outbreak in Virginia at the same time cost the state over $100 million. Undoubtedly, it is safer, cheaper, healthier and more effective to identify a disease before it appears in people.

Beyond infectious diseases, many veterinarians transcend the animal world by applying the knowledge they have gained through their research to develop better treatments for animals and people.  For example, Dr. Ralph Brinster became in 2011 the only veterinarian ever to win the National Medal of Science.  He developed a reliable in-vitro culture system for early mouse embryos.  Now the system is used in embryo manipulations such as human in-vitro fertilization, mammalian cloning, and embryonic stem cell therapy.  And vets are leading the way in critical advances in gene therapies — including cures for two forms of blindness in animals and humans, one of which is now in human trials. The American Academy of Neurology cites more than 12 neurological diseases or disorders that animal research has helped cure, treat, prevent, or further understand.  Clearly, human and animal health are more connected than most people realize, and doctors can learn much from the breakthrough work of veterinarians.


Not only are we concerned about diseases of epidemic proportions but as our world population grows, we also are increasingly faced with issues related to famine. Hunger is the world’s number one public health threat — killing more people than AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria combined, according to James T. Morris, Executive Director of the U.N. World Food Program.  Food availability, safety and production are key areas of research and service for veterinarians. Our food sources need to be safe, healthy and plentiful.  Veterinarians, for instance, have developed a food safety system whereby poultry eggs can be tested for Salmonella 10 times more swiftly, saving millions of dollars and ensuring public safety.  And by gathering information from dairy farms, vets can examine this data and advise farmers on how to modify their feed formulations and additives and change milking schedules.  Not only does this tremendously increase animal well-being, it also positively impacts the economics. Eating “local food” is a direct result.

And beyond eating local, this knowledge has global implications and can be shared with developing countries who demand a higher quality of food and more animal protein, such as meat, milk, and eggs. While the number of dairy cows in the U.S. has decreased, milk production has grown. This isn’t the case in developing countries — the number of cows continues to grow while milk production doesn’t. Our knowledge related to increasing yield per animal for dairy cows can help feed developing countries.

The Importance of Human-Animal Interaction

It has been well-documented that the human-animal connection provides a powerful healing bond. Service and therapy dogs really do enhance our quality of life. A common situation that develops among the elderly is the repercussion of a pet’s illness. Often times, this event leads to the pet needing to leave the home. An additional outcome may be that the person ends up in a nursing home with little animal contact, which has been shown to improve their quality of life as well as, at times, their health.  The human-animal connection extends into other areas as well.

We have a moral obligation to study our companion animals on this planet; it’s a practical issue that the animals that serve us, feed us, and take care of us be healthy. In doing so, we must redefine the veterinarian’s role.

Vets will always be needed to treat cats and dogs. But it is their ability to link animal science to human well-being, advance food production and safety, and provide critical defense from global pandemics that needs to be better understood.

It is far and away today’s and tomorrow’s veterinarians who are best suited to tackle important issues such as these.

Consumer pet spending projected to increase

Thursday, February 28th, 2013

Pet owners are projected to spend 4% more on supplies for their pets this year than they did last year, according to the market research firm Packaged Facts. “We are certainly seeing more health-related and preventive health products on the market that help pets maintain healthy lifestyles,” said Bob Vetere, president of the American Pet Products Association. Hot items include products geared toward aging pets, pet dental care items and natural and organic pet food. Drug Store News

February 25, 2013 | By Barbara White-Sax

Pet supplies may have had limited growth this past year, but the stars of the segment are healthcare-related products. Pet supplies saw a 2% increase, bringing sales to $11.1 billion, according to Packaged Facts. The market research firm projects that this year, pet supplies will grow 4% over 2012 sales.

Like their owners, the pet population is graying. Pets are suffering from age-related conditions — including joint, coronary, cognitive and immune system-related, as well as diabetes and cancer — and consumers are snapping up products that can make their pets healthier.

“We are certainly seeing more health-related and preventive health products on the market that help pets maintain healthy lifestyles,” said Bob Vetere, president of the American Pet Products Association. The explosion of health-related products coincides with a drop in veterinary visits recorded in the past few years, suggesting that pet owners are preemptively caring for their pets’ health issues with pet OTC products.

Such products as Nylabone — a rawhide chew alternative that is fortified with vitamins and minerals — are driving growth in the pet products category, according to a recent report from Mintel. Mintel expects chews, toys, grooming products made with natural ingredients and other supplies that contribute to the health and well-being of dogs and cats to drive sales in the pet supplies segment.

Dental care products are growing in popularity as consumers become more aware of how important gum care is to a pet’s health. Brian Collier, a spokesman for Naturel Promise, manufacturer of the Fresh Dental line of pet dental care products, said oral care products are the fastest-growing segment of the pet business.

Since 80% of dogs show signs of periodontal disease by age 3 years, Collier said the category has a huge upside because currently only 10% of pet owners purchase pet dental care products. Those who do purchase oral care products buy four to six oral care products a year, a number that significantly outpaces turns on other pet grooming products, said Collier.

Naturel Promise’s line of dental products contains a brushless gel, dental spray, water additive, liquid floss and a brushing gel, which retail for between $6.99 and $9.99. The products contain all-natural ingredients, a key selling point in the category.

In the pet food segment, the fastest growing area of pet food is natural and organic products. “It’s the first section that sold out in our show, and it’s clearly the hot performer in the food arena and will continue to be so for the foreseeable future,” Vetere said.

Vetere said another hot segment within the category is convenience products that allow people more flexibility in feeding and caring for their pets.

Pet Food Stamp Program

Saturday, February 23rd, 2013


The Pet Food Stamp program was created to help food stamp recipients and low income individuals who are having difficulty feeding their pets, receive free food. We believe if you are having financial difficulties, you should not have to choose between feeding your family or your pet.

If you are on Food Stamps, in a low income bracket and have a pet and would like to apply for Pet Food Stamps. please visit :; email; call 718.915.4532

Boaters encounter mega-pod of thousands of dolphins

Wednesday, February 20th, 2013

On his daily tour, Capt. Joe Dutra of Hornblower Cruises in California encountered what he called a “super mega-pod” of thousands of swimming dolphins that he estimated to be five miles wide and seven miles long. Dolphins’ social groups usually number no more than 200 individuals, but abundant resources could bring multiple pods together, said scientist Sarah Wilkin. “They were coming from all directions — you could see them from as far as the eye can see,” Dutra said. “I’ve seen a lot of stuff out here … but this is the biggest I’ve ever seen, ever.” KNSD-TV (San Diego)

Thousands of dolphins spanning across 7 miles of ocean were  sighted off the coast of San Diego on Thursday, a boat captain told NBC 7 San  Diego.

Capt. Joe Dutra of Hornblower Cruises said he saw a “super mega-pod” of common  dolphins Thursday around noon while he was on his daily tour. He said the pod  was more than 7 miles long and 5 miles wide.

Dutra said the boat tour followed the pod for more than an  hour and said he’s never seen anything like it.

“When you see something that is honestly truly beyond  belief,” the captain said.

Guests aboard the boat started screaming and pointing when  they first saw the school of adult and juvenile common dolphins. Dutra estimated  there were about 100,000 dolphins swimming in the area.

“They were coming from all directions, you could see them  from as far as the eye can see,” he said. “I’ve seen a lot of stuff out here… but this is the biggest I’ve ever seen, ever.” Whale and dolphin watching tours have done particularly well this year, with  dozens of animal sightings reported.

Marine mammal expert Sarah Wilkin said the reason the large  pod might be there is because there’s plenty of food in the area, including  sardines, herring and squid.

“They’re attracted to kind of the same thing, they might wind  up in the same place,” she said.

Though dolphins typically travel in groups of 200 or less,  Wilkin said “super-pods” are not unheard of.

“They’re definitely social animals, they stick together in  small groups,” she said. “But sometimes, the schools come together.”

Dutra, who’s been boating for decades, said he felt lucky to  enjoy such a rare phenomenon.

“You had to be there to experience it,” he said.  “It  was truly spectacular.”


National Zoo’s orangutans play with iPads

Monday, January 28th, 2013

Thanks to Orangutan Outreach’s Apps for Apes program, the orangutans at the Smithsonian’s National Zoo enjoy 10 iPad apps as part of their regular enrichment. The animals’ preferred apps include cognitive skills challenges and virtual instruments. Orangutan Outreach has provided iPads for apes in other zoos in part to promote conservation of the endangered species. The idea is to “show zoo visitors how similar humans and apes are, be it through observation, talking with wildlife experts or seeing the apes use the same technology we use every day,” said Richard Zimmerman, Orangutan Outreach’s founding director.

Orangutans at the Smithsonian’s National Zoo are now using iPad apps to keep occupied.

“It’s about changing up the day-to-day lives of our animals,” Becky Malinsky, a keeper at the zoo, said in a statement. “We already vary their food, toys and social interactions every day, but the iPad offers another way to engage their sight, touch and hearing.”

So far, the apes are using 10 different apps, including cognitive games, drawing programs and ones that feature virtual musical instruments. According to their keepers, some of the orangutans are already showing their preferences — 36-year-old Bonnie likes to hit the drums, 16-year-old Kyle likes to play the piano, and 25-year-old Iris likes watching animated fish swim in a virtual koi pond on the screen.

The iPads were made available through Apps for Apes, an initiative from the conservation organization Orangutan Outreach, which has already provided tablet devices for the intelligent primates in 12 other zoos, including zoos in Houston, Atlanta, Toronto, Utah and Milwaukee. [10 iPad Alternatives]

“Primarily, we want the Apps for Apes program to help people understand why we need to protect wild orangutans from extinction,” Richard Zimmerman, founding director of Orangutan Outreach, said in a statement. “We do that when we show zoo visitors how similar humans and apes are, be it through observation, talking with wildlife experts or seeing the apes use the same technology we use every day.”

Orangutans are among humans’ closest living relatives, and there are only a few tens of thousands of them currently left in the wild. They are found in the Sumatran rain forests, where they are critically endangered, and the Borneo rain forests, where they are endangered.

Feds to provide veterinary medical insurance for veterans’ service dogs

Monday, January 28th, 2013

Some 2,500 service dogs that aid disabled veterans may soon be insured for routine veterinary medical care including annual vaccinations, exams and certain lab tests. The Department of Veterans Affairs is seeking veterinary medical insurance for the dogs. The coverage will only apply to those that are actively engaged as working dogs. blog

Depending on which vet you talk to, health  care provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs is either the cat’s  meow…or going to the dogs.

We mean that literally: the VA is seeking to keep its growing pack of service  dogs provided to wounded veterans in tip-top shape by buying “veterinary health  insurance and wellness coverage” for 301, and as many as many as 2,500, dogs now  helping veterans around the nation.

It’s another example of the hidden costs of war that you might not think  about unless you stumbled across a contract solicitation for it. Vets get dogs from the VA to help them  with physical disabilities; there is also discussion about expanding such programs to aid vets with  PTSD or other mental ills.

“Coverage will encompass Service Dogs owned by Veterans suffering from  visual, hearing and/or substantial mobility impairments and may be expanded to  include any other future disabilities approved by VA,” the solicitation says. “The Contractor shall provide VA with full comprehensive, quality veterinary  health care insurance coverage for all Service Dogs approved by VA for receipt  of insurance coverage regardless of age, breed, geographic location or  pre-existing condition as long as the Service Dog is determined capable of  performing as a Service Dog.”

The breeds to be covered include boxers, collies, Dobermans, German  shepherds, golden retrievers, great Danes, black, golden and yellow Labs,  Labradoodles, poodles, pugs, and Rottweilers. They range in age from 1 to 12  years.

Under the deal, VA service dogs will be entitled to these vaccinations:

– Distemper Parvo

– Leptospirosis

– Hepatitis

– Rabies

– Lyme Disease

– Bordetella (2 per year)

…and these annual exams:

– Otoscopic Exam

– Opthalmic Exam

– Rectal Exam

– Dental Exam

– Neurologic Exam

– Cardiovascular Evaluation

– Weight/Nutritional Counseling

– Coat & Skin Evaluation

– Abdominal Palpation

– Urogenital Evaluation

– Musculoskeletal Evaluation

– Pulmonary/Lung Evaluation

– Tonometry/Ocular Pressure

– Intestinal Parasite Fecal Exam

– Roundworm and Hookworm Dewormings

– Blood Sample Collect/Prep

– Blood Cell Count

– Differential Exam of Blood Cells

– Internal Organ Function Screens (liver, kidney, calcium/phosphorus,  cholesterol and diabetes)

– Canine Dental Prophylaxis Protocol (utilizes one blood screening and one  internal function screen, listed above)

– Urine Sample Collect/Prep – Free Catch

– Urinalysis – Individual Tests

– Urine Specific Gravity

– Urine Sediment Exam

– Chest X-Rays (3 views)

– Electrocardiograms

– Ear Swab and Microscopic Exam

Weight/Nutritional Counseling?

As well as:

– Dental Cleaning (sedation/general anesthesia is required for all  cleanings)

– Grooming (Blind Veteran-owned Service Dogs only)

– Heartworm/Lyme/Ehrlichia Test – Rocky Mountain Tick Fever

– Free Interstate Health Certificates (when needed)

Of course, such care won’t continue forever, according to the VA:

Upon successful completion of the annual comprehensive exam, VA will certify  or non-certify each Service Dog as fit/unfit for further duty. Those Service  Dogs determined by VA as non-certifiable will no longer be eligible for  insurance coverage and the Contracting Officer via contract modification in  accordance with Section 5.4.2 will terminate the insurance coverage for the  non-certifiable Service Dog.

We’ve asked the VA for an estimate of the annual per-dog cost, but it’s bound  to be more than you might think, given the VA’s response to a potential bidder  who asked if his employees would need security clearances if their company won  the contract:

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) requires that all contractor  personnel with access to VA sensitive data have a fingerprint check adjudicated  favorably and a security investigation, which includes submission of various  security documents, be favorably evaluated before access may be granted to VA  information. In addition, all contractor personnel must successfully complete  the following training each year:  VA Cyber Security Awareness and Rules of  Behavior training, VA privacy training,  and any additional cyber security  or privacy training deemed necessary by the Contracting Officer and/or  Contracting Officer Representative.

Wonder if the dogs have to be so, ahem, vetted, as well?

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